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URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI)
Normal urine is sterile. It contains fluids, salts, and waste products, but it is free of bacteria, viruses, and fungi. An infection occurs when microorganisms, usually bacteria from the digestive tract or vaginal area in women cling to the opening of the urethra and begin to multiply. Most infections arise from one type of bacteria. The most common bacteria is called Escherichia coli (E. coli), which normally lives in the colon.
In most cases, bacteria first begin growing in the urethra. An infection limited to the urethra is called urethritis. From there bacteria often move on to the bladder, causing a bladder infection (cystitis). If the infection is not treated promptly, bacteria may then go up the ureters to infect the kidneys (pyelonephritis).
The urinary system is structured in a way that helps ward off infection. The ureters and bladder normally prevent urine from backing up toward the kidneys, and the flow of urine from the bladder helps wash bacteria out of the body. In men, the prostate gland produces secretions that slow bacterial growth. In both sexes, immune defenses also prevent infection. But despite these safeguards, infections still occur.
Some people are more prone to getting a UTI than others.
Not everyone with a UTI has symptoms, but most people get at least some. These may include:
Congenital hypogonadism is generally characterized by underdeveloped genitalia (testes that do not descend into the scrotum) and, occasionally, undeterminable genitalia.
Hypogonadism developed near puberty can result in gynecomastia (enlargement of breast tissue), sparse or absent pubic and body hair, and underdeveloped penis, testes, and muscle.
Adult men may experience diminished libido, erectile dysfunction, muscle weakness, loss of body hair, depression, and other mood disorders.
Women who experience multiple or recurrent urinary tract infections with a short period of time need to be evaluated by a urolgist. One of the following treatment options may be advisable in certain instances:
Steps one can take on their own to avoid an infection:
UTIs in men usually stem from an obstruction possible a urinary stone, enlarged prostate or from a foreign body such as a catheter. The first step is to identify the infecting organism treat with antibiotics to which the bacteria is sensitive and relieve the obstruction and/or foreign body.